Shared Flashcard Set. Title Nutrition Test 3. Description study guide. Total Cards Subject Science. Level Undergraduate 1. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Supporting users have an ad free experience! Flashcard Library Browse Search Browse. Create Account. Additional Science Flashcards.
Definition marasmus. Term Which of the following is a nutrient of concern for vegans? Definition vitamin B Term Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?
Definition antibodies. Term Of the twenty amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered nonessential? A: five B: nine C: eleven D: twenty. Definition eleven. Term which of the following is the only complete vegetable protein: A: soy B: corn C: peanuts D: wheat.
Definition soy. Term a complete protein: A. Definition contains all essential amino acids.Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box. When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.
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Caucasian females which of the best describes an eating disorder? Previous experiences, such as those that occur during childhood, affect our current response to food and eating behaviors Which of the following is not a method of purging?
Different eating behaviors occur on a spectrum that can't be divided precisely. The body needs to conserve energy Which of the following BEST explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the "perfect body" than are adults?
Adolescents are developing their personal identity Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of bulimia nervosa? What is cortisol? Which of the following results warrants follow up intervention? Our bodies manufacture phospholipids Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?
Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid. Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat? Swordfish What is the leading cause of death in the United States? They are created during the hydrogenation process During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat? Fat provides an immediate source of energy during exercise. Triglycerides Triglycerides are classified by: the shape of the fatty acids, the length of the fatty acids, the saturation of fatty acids The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the: small intestine Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
The body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves. Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered nonessential?
What is the by-product of this process? HCl inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion. The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a: lacto-vegetarian Benito is a healthy year-old college student who is sedentary.
He is 5'11" tall and weighs pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend he consume each day?Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box. When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.
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A and P 2 - Test 2 Stack Question Answer The percentage of solids in a sample of human blood is normally about. Red Blood Cells erythrocytes What are the agranulocytes? Monocytes and Lymphocytes Platelets are best described as. True What are the functions of the plasma proteins?
True Erythropoeitin release increases in oxygen depleted conditions in response to the body's need for more oxygen by. False They're produced in the red bone marrow.Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side.
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When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug.Andrew's Story: Guillain-Barré Syndrome
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Edema All reticular lymphoid organs are composed of reticular connective tissue except? Thymus Large isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to tonsils, that are located in the wall of the distal portion of small intestine Peyer's Patches Lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils. Lymphoid Organs These types of cells differentiate in the thymus. T Cells Cells that recognize antigens and produce plasma cells.
B Cells The lighter-staining center of a lymphoid follicles. Germinal Centers Receives lymph drainage from the digestive organs. Cisterna Chyli Internal portion of a lymph gland where cells are arranged in a cordlike fashion.
Medulla Lymph exits the convex side of the lymph node through a number of these vessels. Afferent Lymphatic Vessels Lymph exits the convex side of the lymph node through a number of these vessels. Efferent Lymphatic Vessels Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed: Lymph nodes The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called: Peyer's patches The thymus is most active during: Childhood The lymphatic capillaries are: More permeable than blood capillaries Lymph leaves a lymph node via: Efferent lymphatic vessels By secreting hormones, the thymus causes what cells to become immunocompetent?
Lymphocytes When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors, the result is: Severe localized edema distal to the blockage What is a bubo?
An infected lymph node The lymph tissues found within the walls of the small intestine are called: Peyer's patches Particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the: Lower extremities Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except: Islets of Langerhans Functions of the lymphatic system include: Transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the: Lingual tonsils Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
Red blood cells A sentinel node is: The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous Select the correct statement about lymph transport.The correct answer is E.
Movement of RNA molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton of the cell in eukaryotic organisms is made of different types of protein fibers. These fibers help to provide shape and support to the cell, and in some cases enable the movement of organelles, chromosomes, and entire cells. The three types of fibers from the smallest diameter to the largest diameter are actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
The intermediate filaments are most numerous in nerve cells and the epidermal cells of multicellular organisms where they help to provide support and structure. They are responsible for helping cells to closely organize and associate with the matrix and other cells in a tissue. Microtubules are the largest of the proteins that are found in the cytoskeleton. They are important in making up the centrioles which form the spindle that allows chromosomes to separate during cell division.
These microtubules are also the structures that form cilia and flagella. Cilia and flagella are important structures produced in cells that allow for movement. Many single-celled Protista are ciliated or flagellated, which enable movement of the cell or the generation of feeding currents for the cell.
Actin filaments are the smallest structures of the cytoskeleton but are usually the most abundant in cells. They are important in connecting the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm and in enabling the contraction of muscle cells. The cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell contains many protein fibers and filaments that form what is known as the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a very important part of the cell which helps organize and support organelles and the cell.
The fibers of the cytoskeleton also maintain the position of the nucleus within the cell. It also plays a role in the movement of structures in the cell and the movement of unicellular organisms such as flagellates and ciliated protists. Some parts of the cytoskeleton also help cells to link together and assemble to form the tissues of multicellular life forms.
Some of the protein fibers also are important in forming cytoplasmic extensions such as the microvilli of cells. There are three types of filaments that make up the elements of the cytoskeleton. These structures are intermediate filaments, microtubules, and actin microfilaments. These protein filaments are 10 nm in diameter and in between the size of actin microfilaments 7 nm and microtubules 24 nm.
The subunits of these structures consist of globular proteins. The subunits for intermediate filaments are alpha-helical proteins.
Several types of proteins are found making up these filaments. For instance, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAPdesmin, keratins, and peripherin are some of the types of proteins that are present in these filaments. The intermediate filaments are most commonly found in the cells of multicellular life forms. They are particularly abundant in the cells of the epidermis and in the axon region of nerve cells.
The role of these filaments is believed to be primarily to provide structure to the cell, they are not involved in the movement of cell organelles or for cell movement in the way that the other two protein fibers are. Scientists have discovered that the intermediate filaments are very important in helping provide support where cells meet the matrix in tissues.
They appear to help support the plasma membrane and allow cells to group together and be arranged and organized into layers to form tissues. Microtubules are made of the protein known as tubulin. These proteins enable the movement of vesicles through the cytoplasm of the cell and they help to give the cell support and shape.
The protein filaments of tubulin are arranged so as to form cilia and flagella, which are structures that allow for movement. In the case of the flagellum or cilium, protofilaments of alpha and beta tubulin are arranged to form a hollow cylinder.The nucleoid meaning nucleus -like is an irregularly shaped region within the prokaryotic cell that contains all or most of the genetic material.
In contrast to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cellit is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Instead, the nucleoid forms by condensation and functional arrangement with the help of chromosomal architectural proteins and RNA molecules as well as DNA supercoiling. The length of a genome widely varies generally at least a few million base pairs and a cell may contain multiple copies of it. There is not yet a high-resolution structure known of a bacterial nucleoid, however key features have been researched in Escherichia coli as a model organism.
These loops spatially organize into megabase-sized regions called macrodomains, within which DNA sites frequently interact, but between which interactions are rare. The condensed and spatially organized DNA forms a helical ellipsoid that is radially confined in the cell.
The 3D structure of the DNA in the nuceoid appears to vary depending on conditions and is linked to gene expression so that the nucleoid architecture and gene transcription are tightly interdependent, influencing each other reciprocally. In many bacteria, the chromosome is a single covalently closed circular double-stranded DNA molecule that encodes the genetic information in a haploid form. The size of the DNA varies fromto several million base pairs bp encoding from to several thousand genes depending on the organism.
The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a model system for nucleoid research into how chromosomal DNA becomes the nucleoid, the factors involved therein, what is known about its structure, and how some of the DNA structural aspects influence gene expression.
There are two essential aspects of nucleoid formation; condensation of a large DNA into a small cellular space and functional organization of DNA in a three-dimensional form. The haploid circular chromosome in E. However, a large DNA molecule such as the E. Thus, pure DNA becomes substantially condensed without any additional factors; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil form. The second essential aspect of nucleoid formation is the functional arrangement of DNA.
Chromosomal DNA is not only condensed but also functionally organized in a way that is compatible with DNA transaction processes such as replicationrecombinationsegregationand transcription. At the megabase scale, the plectonemic loops coalesce into six spatially organized domains macrodomainswhich are defined by more frequent physical interactions among DNA sites within the same macrodomain than between different macrodomains.
Finally, the nucleoid is a helical ellipsoid with regions of highly condensed DNA at the longitudinal axis. Although bacteria do not have histones, they possess a group of DNA binding proteins referred to as nucleoid-associated proteins NAPs that are functionally analogous to histones in a broad sense. NAPs are highly abundant and constitute a significant proportion of the protein component of nucleoid.
A distinctive characteristic of NAPs is their ability to bind DNA in both a specific either sequence- or structure-specific and non-sequence specific manner. As a result, NAPs are dual function proteins. It is noteworthy that so-called non-sequence specific binding of a NAP may not be completely random. Although molecular mechanisms of how NAPs condense DNA in vivo are not well understood, based on the extensive in vitro studies it appears that NAPs participate in chromosome compaction via the following mechanisms: NAPs induce and stabilize bends in DNA, thus aid in DNA condensation by reducing the persistence length.
Another mechanism by which NAPs participate in chromosome compaction is by constraining negative supercoils in DNA thus contributing to the topological organization of the chromosome. There are at least 12 NAPs identified in E. Their abundance and DNA binding properties and effect on DNA condensation and organization are summarized in the tables below.
Which of the following functions is not associated with the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells?
Histone-like protein from E. It binds with low-affinity to any linear DNA. However, it preferentially binds with high-affinity to a structurally distorted DNA. In contrast, HU shows the opposite architectural effect on DNA at higher physiologically-relevant concentrations. How are these behaviors of HU relevant inside the cell? The flexible bending would cause condensation due to a reduction in the persistence length of DNA as shown by magnetic tweezers experiments, which allow studying condensation of a single DNA molecule by a DNA binding protein.
The filament formation alone does not induce condensation,  but DNA networking or bunching can substantially contribute to condensation by bringing distant or nearby chromosome segments together.It is composed of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins. Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear lamina regulates important cellular events such as DNA replication and cell division. Additionally, it participates in chromatin organization and it anchors the nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope.
The nuclear lamina is associated with the inner face of the double bilayer nuclear envelopewhereas the outer face is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. The nuclear lamina consists of two components, lamins and nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins. The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type lamin A, C or B-type lamin B 1B 2 according to homology of their DNA sequencesbiochemical properties and cellular localization during the cell cycle.
Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain 42 amino acid longerthat they all carry a nuclear localization signal NLS at their C-terminus and that they display typical tertiary structures. Their molecular weight ranges from 60 to 80 kilodaltons kDa. In the amino acid sequence of a nuclear lamin, there are also two phosphoacceptor sites present, flanking the central rod domain.
A phosphorylation event at the onset of mitosis leads to a conformational change which causes the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In the vertebrate genomelamins are encoded by three genes. By alternative splicingat least seven different polypeptides splice variants are obtained, some of which are specific for germ cells and play an important role in the chromatin reorganisation during meiosis.
Not all organisms have the same number of lamin encoding genes; Drosophila melanogaster for example has only 2 genes, whereas Caenorhabditis elegans has only one.
The presence of lamin polypeptides is a property of all animals. The nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins.
Due to their positioning within or their association with the inner membrane, they mediate the attachment of the nuclear lamina to the nuclear envelope. Next to providing mechanical support to the nucleus, the nuclear lamina plays an essential role in chromatin organization, cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA repaircell differentiation and apoptosis.
The non-random organization of the genome strongly suggests that the nuclear lamina plays a role in chromatin organization. Lamin A and B can also bind core histones through a sequence element in their tail domain. Chromatin that interacts with lamina forms lamina-associated domains LADs. The average length of human LADs is 0. At the onset of mitosis prophaseprometaphasethe cellular machinery is engaged in the disassembly of various cellular components including structures such as the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and the nuclear pore complexes.
This nuclear breakdown is necessary to allow the mitotic spindle to interact with the condensed chromosomes and to bind them at their kinetochores. Once this complex is activated, the cell is forced into mitosis, by the subsequent activation and regulation of other protein kinases or by direct phosphorylation of structural proteins involved in this cellular reorganisation.
The importance of the nuclear lamina breakdown at this stage is underlined by experiments where inhibition of the disassembly event leads to a complete cell cycle arrest. At the end of mitosis, anaphasetelophase there is a nuclear reassembly which is highly regulated in time, starting with the association of 'skeletal' proteins on the surface of the still partially condensed chromosomes, followed by nuclear envelope assembly.
Novel nuclear pore complexes are formed through which nuclear lamins are actively imported by use of their NLS. This typical hierarchy raises the question whether the nuclear lamina at this stage has a stabilizing role or some regulative function, for it is clear that it plays no essential part in the nuclear membrane assembly around chromatin.
The presence of lamins in embryonic development is readily observed in various model organisms such as Xenopus laevisthe chick and mammals. In Xenopus laevisfive different types were identified which are present in different expression patterns during the different stages of the embryonic development.
A fourth type exists and is germ cell specific. In the early embryonic stages of the chick, the only lamins present are B-type lamins. In further stages, the expression pattern of lamin B 1 decreases and there is a gradual increase in the expression of lamin A.
Mammalian development seems to progress in a similar way. In the latter case as well it is the B-type lamins that are expressed in the early stages.
Lamin B1 reaches the highest expression level, whereas the expression of B2 is relatively constant in the early stages and starts to increase after cell differentiation.
With the development of the different kinds of tissue in a relatively advanced developmental stage, there is an increase in the levels of lamin A and lamin C. These findings would indicate that in its most basic form, a functional nuclear lamina requires only B-type lamins. Various experiments show that the nuclear lamina plays a part in the elongation phase of DNA replication.