By Sudip Dhakal on June 22, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cancer and Cancer Immunotherapy Cancer is a group of disease that is caused by multiple alterations of normal genes leading to abnormal growth of cells. By Sudip Dhakal on June 3, The ability of certain viruses to bind with the red blood cells through their superficial glycoproteins and proteins had been utilised to quantitate these viruses and the assay is termed as haemagglutination assay.
By Pratiksha Pokhrel on November 29, However, the tadpoles are herbivorous: feeding on aquatic plants. Ingestion The process of taking of food into alimentary canal through mouth is called ingestion. By Pratiksha Pokhrel on October 14, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 Respiratory System of Frog Respiration is a process in which food are oxidized with oxygen in order to release energy. The released energy is utilized to perform various life activities. The metabolic waste like CO2 is eliminated from the body.
By Pratiksha Pokhrel on September 1, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 Mechanism of Respiration in Human Respiration is simply defined as the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the body.
Physiology of respiration can be described under following phases: External respiration Transport of oxygen Internal respiration Transport of carbon dioxide External respiration It is the first step of respiration.
By Pratiksha Pokhrel on August 10, Breathing is brought about by two sets of muscles- i. Internal intercoastal muscles ii. By Pratiksha Pokhrel on July 18, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 External Apertures of Pheretima There are many apertures present in earthworm which have their own functions.
Some of them are given below: Mouth: is a crescentic aperture, located on the ventral surface of the body, just below the prostomium and surrounded by peristomium.
It is used for feeding. By Pratiksha Pokhrel on June 30, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 External Morphology of Earthworm External structures which are visible from outside is called external features or external morphology.
The important external features are as follows: Shape: Earthworm is elongated, long, narrow, cylindrical or vermiform shaped. The anterior end is tapering while the posterior end is more or less blunt.
By Pratiksha Pokhrel on June 15, Please rate this Please Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 Digestive System of Earthworm Digestive system of earthworm consists of alimentary canal and glands along with physiology of digestion. By Pratiksha Pokhrel on May 25, Attribution CC BY. This covers the basics of microbiology, starting with a brief history of microbiology and the impact microbes have had on humans.
The text covers the application of genetics in Microbiology research, microbial metabolism to provide a background on Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less. The text covers the application of genetics in Microbiology research, microbial metabolism to provide a background on the function of microbes before delving into their role in diseases and human health.
This text is ideal for students planning to pursue a health related field. The book is missing several key words in the metabolism section, like lithotroph, chemotroph, and autotroph. There is no mention of reverse electron flow in the section on phototrophs. The glyoxylate pathway is missing and there is no mention of Gibbs free energy. From a public health perspective, this book is missing a section on indicator organisms and how they are used for water quality monitoring.
However, it does do an excellent job covering early epidemiologists John Snow and Florence Nightingale. The immunology section was much easier to read and understand than my current textbook.
The content is presented in an unbiased manner. The content provided is accurate, but their are errors of omission and errors of over simplification. For example, the nitrogen cycle is described as having only three steps: denitrification, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. These aren't really steps, they are multistep processes. There are many other steps in the nitrogen cycle that are not included here.
The content will not become outdated quickly. It is easy to build on the content that is provided. This is both a strength and a weakness. With commercial text books, each chapter provides too much information and I can delete the excess info.
With this text book it would be necessary to spend time providing additional content to increase the depth.Author by : I DR. Essentials of Microbiology is enhanced by over images and illustrations and tables. The final chapter on practical microbiology for MBBS students makes this book ideal for medical undergraduates. The book will serve the requirements of BSc Nursing 1st year students to prepare for their examinations.
Collection of last 10 years' solved questions asked in different university examinations across India Viva Voce questions Richly illustrated and lucid content presented with utmost simplicity Simple and easily reproducible diagrams Sample Papers for self-practise Answers in point format Sample questions for non-clinical subjects like English and Computers. Author by : ANNU. In this edition revision has been made both in text and illustrations and more details have been added to the chapter on Female Reproductive System.
This revised book covers the subject matter fully for B. Recent Search Terms the river of no return cleveland sellers pdf the woman who disappeared book the woman who disappeared book keep me in mind by jaime reed pdf unorthodox epub free linchpin pdf ebook on iphone from childhood to adolescencebook pdf learning to see pdf download hurwitz orphan x download free stranger things book pdf.Microbial diversity is defined as the variability among living organisms.
The main key of microbial diversity on earth is due to evolution. The structural and functional diversity of any cell represents its evolutionary event which occurred through Darwinian Theory of natural selection. Natural selection and survival of fittest theory is involved on the microorganisms. This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. This was first used in the title of a scientific meeting in Washington, D.
The fungal diversity indicates the total number of species in a particular taxonomic group. The estimates of 1. Attempts to estimate total numbers of bacteria, archaea, and viruses even more problematical because of difficulties such as detection and recovery from the environment, incomplete knowledge of obligate microbial associations e.
On the other hand, there is one group Spiro plasma, which was discovered inmay be the largest genus on earth. Similarly, marine ecosystems likely support a luxuriant microbial diversity.
Further, microbial diversity can be seen on cell size, morphology, metabolism, motility, cell division, developmental biology, adaptation to extreme conditions, etc.Introduction To Microbiology
The microbial diversity, therefore, appears in large measure to reflect obligate or facultative associations with higher organisms and to be determined by the spatiotemporal diversity of their hosts or associates.
Holben detected Brady-rhizobium japonicum selectively at densities as low as 4. Biological diversity or biodiversity is actually evolved as part of the evolution of organisms, and the smallest unit of microbial diversity is a species.
Bacteria, due to lack of sexuality, fossil records etc. Hence, a bacterial species is a genomic species based on DNA-DNA relatedness and the modern concept of bacterial species differs from those of other organisms. To date, more than 69, species in genera of fungi and about 4, species of about genera of bacteria have been described in the literature as given in Table 2.
The role of microorganisms both on land and water, including being the first colonizer, have ameliorating effects of naturally occurring and man-made disturbed environments. There are resources for new genes and organisms of value to biotechnology, there diversity patterns can be used for monitoring and predicting environmental change. Microorganisms play role in conservation and restoration biology of higher organisms. The microbial communities are excellent model for understanding biological interactions and evolutionary history.
Data bases are becoming more widely available as a source of molecular and macromolecular information on microorganisms. New- technologies are being developed that are based on diverse organisms from diagnostics to biosensors and to biocatalysts. It has also leashed new waves of creativity in the from of RNA sequence analysis to prove the metabolic activities and gene regulation of microbes in situ. The gainful advantages may occur by enriching microbial diversity.
Microbial genomes can be used for recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering of organisms with environmental and energy related applications. Emergence of new human pathogen such as SARS is becoming quite important due to threat to public health can be solved by analyzing the genomes of such pathogen.
Culture collections can play a vital role in preserving the genetic diversity of microorganisms. This can be further strengthened by multidisciplinary involvement of experts.
Microbiology MCQ PDF Download Free
There is a compelling need for discovery and identification of microbial bio-control agents, an assessment of their efficacy etc. Knowing what is likely to be present can help in rapid diagnosis and treatment. Biodegradation and bioremediation are potentially important to clean-up and destruction of unwanted materials.
Microbial diversity of marine microorganisms is equally important. Vibrio vulnificus contaminated oysters.Sc Agriculture. The courseware material is prepared as per ICAR approved syllabus for the benefit of under-graduate students already enrolled in Indian Agricultural Universities. Disclaimer: The information on this website does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of the courseware contents.
The contents are provided free for noncommercial purpose such as teaching, training, research, extension and self learning. Thanks for this team who prepared that…. Apart from the above books, please prepare for Landscapping with Horticulture crops ebook also. Thank you!
Sir great effort please also avail entomology subjects and general agriculture papers sir thanks again.
Pls send the model question paper for new syllabus. Very useful books but entomology and general agriculture book not found. Plz provide these books thank you sir. I am able for for government job or not Please give me some suggestions what I have to do. Please sir I am waiting for your reply. That college approved by UGC or not.
If approved by UGC than you are eligible for govt job. If not than may be not…. Thankyou so much sir for providing the book. Dear friend aap book ko hindi me translate kar sakte hai…. Now gone to translate now and select pdf book…. I really appreciate hardworking of your team sir, these notes are really helpful and contains all the required relevant information associated with the topics.
Thank u so much sir.Micro — organisms and their activities are vitally important to virtually all processes on earth.
Micro — organisms matter because they affect every aspects of our lives — they are in us, on us and around us. Microbiologists studt microbes and some of the most important discoveries that have underpinned modern society have resulted from the research of famous microbiologists, such as Jenner and his vaccine against smallpox, fleming and the discovery of penicillin, Marshall and the indentation of the link between Helicobacter pylori infections and stomach ulcers and zur husen who identified the link between papilloma viruses ans cervical cancers.
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PDF is just provided for educational purposes. We will edit or remove it. That was MCQ of Microbiology in pdf. Share this post with your near and dear who are preparing for competitive exams. Join Our facebook group bu clicking here. Hi, I do think this is a great site. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.Overview of microscope Having been constructed in the 16th Century, Microscopes have revolutionalized science with their ability to magnify small objects such as microbial cells, producing images with definitive structures that are identifiable and characterizable.
So, what are microscopes? Microscopes are instruments that are used in science laboratories, to visualize very minute objects such as … Read more Parts of a microscope with functions and labeled diagram. Disclaimer: Logos and informations are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the logo and information of the journal, please email us at microbenotes gmail.
He has many contributions to microbiology: He has proposed the principles of fermentation for the preservation of food. He introduced sterilization techniques and developed steam sterilizers, hot air oven, and autoclave.
He described the method of pasteurization of milk. He had … Read more Microbiology History. Biochemical Test of Bacteria Biochemical reactions are very important in the identification of bacterial isolates and in the identification of different bacterial species.
These tests depend on the presence of certain enzymes, such as catalase, oxidase, urease, gelatinase, etc.
Different bacteria produce varying spectra of enzymes. For example, some enzymes are … Read more Biochemical Test of Bacteria. Sensitivity and Specificity When developing diagnostic tests or evaluating results, it is important to understand how reliable those tests and therefore the results obtained are. By using samples of known disease status, values such as sensitivity and specificity can be calculated that allow its evaluation.
Therefore, when evaluating diagnostic tests, it is important to calculate … Read more Sensitivity and Specificity. It is a broth medium used for the growth of the organism and a base for determining carbohydrate fermentation patterns of non-fastidious organisms. In addition, it is also used for the detection of indole production by the organism. These natural polymers include polysaccharides, such as cellulose, chitin, starch, alginate, galactan, hyaluronic acid, dextran, and gellan, obtained from plants, animals, and microbial sources and polyesters, such as poly b-hydroxybutyrate and poly b-hydroxybutyrate-co-b—hydroxyvalerateproduced by numerous bacteria.
General Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory Aseptic technique is a set of routine measures that are taken to prevent cultures, sterile media stocks, and other solutions from being contaminated by unwanted microorganisms i. Direct Microscopic Counts Studies involving the analysis of materials including food, water, milk, and, in some cases, air require quantitative enumeration of microorganisms in the substances.
Many methods have been devised to accomplish this, including direct microscopic counts, use of an electronic cell counter such as the Coulter Counter, chemical methods for estimating cell mass … Read more Direct Microscopic Counts.
Classification of Protozoa The sub kingdom Protozoa which was originally included in the kingdom protista includes unicellular, non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic microorganism that are considered single celled, The Protozoan Animals. When in colonies, they … Read more Classification of Protozoa. Most bacteriological laboratories maintain stock cultures of microorganisms for educational, research, bioassay, industrial, or other purposes. Older posts.